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Table 1 Immune checkpoint families and paired molecules

From: Metabolism-associated danger signal-induced immune response and reverse immune checkpoint-activated CD40+ monocyte differentiation

  1. Immune checkpoints are classified as one-way immune checkpoint and two-way immune checkpoint based on signal 2 direction (forward only or both forward and reverse) and are further divided into stimulatory and inhibitory checkpoints. Listed are a few major immune checkpoint families. For example, in the CD28 family, CTLA-4 receptor binds to ligand B7-1(CD80) or B7-2(CD86) which are enriched in TC, BC, DC, MC, and MØ. The black frame emphasizes the two-way immune checkpoint to be focused. Words in the parentheses are aliases of the receptor and ligands
  2. Abbreviations: AC apoptotic cell, BC B cell, BTLA B and T lymphocyte attenuator, CTLA-4 cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4, CRTAM cytotoxic and regulatory T cell molecule, DC dendritic cell, DNAM-1 DNAX accessory molecule-1, EC endothelial cell, EPC epithelial cell, FIB fibroblast, GITR glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related protein, GITRL GITR ligand, HVEM herpes virus entry mediator, ICOS inducible T cell co-stimulator, MC monocyte, macrophage, MAC mast cell, MYC myeloid cell, NKC natural killer cell, NE neuronal, NECL2 nectin-like protein 2, PA platelet, PS phosphatidylserine, PD-1 programmed cell death protein 1, PD-L PD ligand, SMC smooth muscle cell, TC T cell, TNFSF tumor necrosis factor superfamily, TIM T cell (or transmembrane) immunoglobulin and mucin domain, TIGIT T cell immunoreceptor with Ig and ITIM domains