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Table 1 Characterization of lymphoid cell subsets

From: Immune cell subset differentiation and tissue inflammation

Subsets   Markers Frequency Cytokines Functions
TC Th1 IL-2+TNF-β+IFN-Ɣ+ 20% in blood CD4+ TC IL-2, IL-12IFN-γ, TNF-α ↑MØ↑Cell-mediated immunity
Th2 IL-4+IL-5+IL-10+IL-13+ 2% in blood CD4+ TC IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 IL-25, IL-13 ↑Ab, Eos↓MØ function
Th17 IL-17+RORγt+ 0.5% in blood CD4+ TC IL-21, IL-22, IL-24IL-26, IL-17A, IL-17F Defend host↑Autoimmune disease
Treg Foxp3+IL-10+ 5% in PBMC IL-10, TGF-β ↓Autoimmune disease
Tfh CXCR5+ 13.5%in blood CD4+ TC IL-21 ↑BC activation and functional differentiation
Th22 AHR+CCR4+CCR6+CCR10+ 0.05%In blood CD4+ TC IL-17, IL-22 ↓Immune activation
BC Fo B2 CD21/35intCD23+CD24lowCD62L+CD93-IgMlowIgDhigh 4.3% in blood CD19+ BC IgD, IgM ↑Adaptive response
MZ B2/B1-like CD21/35highCD23-CD24+CD93IgMhighIgDlow 17% in blood BC IgM Respond toblood-borne pathogen
  1. CD4+ helper T cells (TC) can be subdivided into seven groups, which include T helper cells Th1, Th2, Th17, regulatory T cells (Treg), Th9, T follicular helper cells (Tfh), and Th22. Th1 drive autoimmune diseases, while Th2 synthesize interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-1, and facilitate antibody production. Th17 produce IL-17 and play critical roles in autoimmunity and inflammatory diseases. Treg are in charge of suppressing potentially deleterious activities of Th cells. Th9 protect hosts against helminthic infection and also mediate allergic disease. Tfh are known to regulate BC activation and functional differentiation. Th22-secrected IL-22 maintains intestinal epithelial barrier integrity and stimulates the secretion of antimicrobial peptides that limit bacterial dissemination and intestinal inflammation. Bone marrow (BM)-derived B cells (BC) develop into either follicular (Fo) BC or marginal zone (MZ) BC in the spleen. Fo BC participate in TC-dependent immune responses to protein antigens. MZ BC express high levels of CD21 and CD1d, and respond vigorously to blood borne pathogens. Both B-1a and B-1b BC seed the peritoneal and pleural cavities. While B-1a BC contribute to innate-like immune responses, B-1b BC contribute to adaptive immunity