Open Access

CSF3R, SETBP1 and CALR mutations in chronic neutrophilic leukemia

  • Yajuan Cui1,
  • Bing Li1,
  • Robert Peter Gale2,
  • Qian Jiang3,
  • Zefeng Xu1,
  • Tiejun Qin1,
  • Peihong Zhang4,
  • Yue Zhang1, 5 and
  • Zhijian Xiao1, 5Email author
Journal of Hematology & Oncology20147:77

https://doi.org/10.1186/s13045-014-0077-1

Received: 10 September 2014

Accepted: 4 October 2014

Published: 15 October 2014

Abstract

The WHO 2008 definition of chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL) is based on clinical and laboratory parameters but not on molecular abnormalities. Mutations in CSF3R, SETBP1 and CALR are reported in patients with chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL). However, because CNL is rare, there are few large studies of this issue. We sequenced these genes in 14 patients who met the WHO-criteria of CNL. 8 subjects had CSF3R T618I , 6 SETBP1 mutations and 1 a CALR mutation. Our data suggest mutation analysis of CSF3R, SETBP1 and CALR should be included in the diagnostic criteria for CNL. These data may also have therapy implications.

Keywords

Chronic neutrophilic leukemia, CNL CSF3R SETBP1 CALR Mutation

To the Editor

The WHO defines chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL) as a myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) with sustained elevated neutrophils and <10% immature cells [1]. Recently, recurrent somatic mutations in the membrane proximal domain of CSF3R were reported in patients with CNL [2],[3]. CSF3R was mutated in 100% [3], SETBP1 33% [3] and CALR in 12.5% of WHO-defined cases of CNL [4]. We analyzed mutations in CSF3R, SETBP1 and CALR in 14 subjects who met the WHO-criteria.

Findings

CSF3R exon 14–17 [3], SETBP1 exon 4 [3] and CALR exon 9 [5] were amplified by PCR and sequenced. 8 subjects who met the WHO 2008 CNL criteria had a CSF3RT618I mutation, 6 SETBP1 mutations (2 D868N, 2 I871T, 1 G870S and 1 D874N) and the last had a CALR mutation (c.1154-1155insTTGTC). All mutations were heterozygous except 1 case of SETBP1I871T. 6 other subjects, 2 with monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS)-associated CNL and 4 with reactive neutrophilic leukocytosis had no mutation of these genes. No subject had a JAK2V617F mutation (Table 1).
Table 1

Clinical characteristics and laboratory variables

No.

Diagnosis

Gender/Age

Hb (g/L)

WBC (×109/L)

ANC (×109/L)

PLT (×109/L)

Spleen (cm,LCM)

Karyotypes

CSF3R

SETBP1

CALR

JAK2V617F

Treatment

Survival (month)

1

CNL

M/80

120

27.19

25.42

91

3

46,XY,t(1,7) (p32,q11)[10]

T618I

D874N

wt

wt

Hydroxyurea

52

2

CNL

M/64

123

86.83

ND

394

0

46,XY[5]

T618I

D868N

wt

wt

Hydroxyurea

5+

3

CNL

F/77

125

35.68

25.92

351

4

46,XY[20]

T618I

G870S

wt

wt

Hydroxyurea

22+

4

CNL

F/49

104

85.61

79.47

20

6

46,XX[20]

T618I

I871T

wt

wt

Hydroxyurea

13+

5

CNL

M/70

86

146.77

121.82

104

15

ND

T618I

I871T

wt

wt

Hydroxyurea

17

6

CNL

M/43

55

112.65

101.1

98

10

46,XY[5]

T618I

D868N

wt

wt

Hydroxyurea

4+

7

CNL

F/69

102

57.40

40.16

231

6

46,XX[12]

T618I

wt

c.1154-1155insTTGTC

wt

Hydroxyurea

10

8

CNL

M/45

119

32.76

28.73

286

6

46,XY[9]

T618I

wt

wt

wt

Hydroxyurea

32

9

MGUS-CNL

M/46

63

65.30

60.7

101

7

46,XY[2]

wt

wt

wt

wt

Hydroxyurea

6+

10

MGUS-CNL

F/52

121

26.53

19.94

170

3

46,XX[20]

wt

wt

wt

wt

Hydroxyurea

27+

All the parameters in Table 1 were measured at the initial diagnosis in our hospital.

MGUS-CNL: monoclonal gammopathy with uncertain significance associated CNL; Hb: hemoglobin; WBC: White Blood Cell Count; ANC: Absolute Neutrophil Count; PLT: Platelet Count; Spleen (cm): Spleen size under left costa. ND: not done.

The consistent association between CSF3RT618I and CNL in our study is similar to data of Maxson et al. [2] and Pardanani et al. [3] (Table 2). Tefferi et al.[6] suggested including CSF3RT618I or other membrane proximal CSF3R mutations as a criteria for diagnosis of CNL. We also confirmed the high incidence SETBP1 mutations in patients with CNL. The mutations we detected focused on a hotspot area from D868 to D874 (Table 1). Although these mutations also occur in other hematologic neoplasms such as atypical chronic myeloid leukemia aCML and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML), analysis of SETBP1 mutations could help distinguish CNL from reactive conditions such as infection, inflammatory conditions and non-haematologic neoplasms.
Table 2

CSF3R and SETBP1 mutations in CNL

 

Gotlib J et al. (2013) [[7]]

Pardanani A et al. (2013) [[3]]

This series

Total

T618I only

1

5

1

7

T618I + SETBP1

4

4

6

14

Compound CSF3R mutationsa only

2

1

0

3

Compound CSF3R mutations + SETBP1 mutations

1

0

0

1

Others

1b

2c

1d

4

a: compound CSF3R mutations mean nonsense or frameshift mutations that truncate the cytoplasmic tail (truncation mutations) combined with point mutations in the extracellular domain (membrane proximal mutation). In the 3 cases of compound CSF3R mutations Tyner et al. reported, two patients harbored T618I and one harbored T615A in the membrane proximal domain. In Tefferi's study, the compound CSF3R mutation showed T618I + c.2341_2342insC.

b: A case with JAK2 mutation only.

c: A case with I598I and a case with M696T in CSF3R.

d: A case with CSF3R T618I and CALR frameshift mutation.

Gotlib et al. reported JAK2V617F mutation in a subject of CNL [7]. Lasho et al. reported a CALR mis-sense mutation in a subject with CNL [4]. We found concurrent CSF3RT618I and CALR frame-shift mutations in 1 subject. The 5 bp insertion into CALR exon 9 is reported in BCR/ABL1- and JAK2-negative MPNs and results in a 1+ base-pair frame-shift with an altered C-terminus.

There is controversy whether co-existence of MGUS and CNL is one or two diseases. The 2 MGUS subjects in our study had no mutation in CSF3R, SETBP1, JAK2 or CALR. In another study, none of 6 cases of MGUS-associated CNL had CSF3R mutations [3]. Also, survival of patients with MGUS-associated CNL is significantly longer survival than those with CNL only. These data support the notion patients with MGUS and CNL are 2 diseases [8].

There may be therapy implications of our findings. CSF3R truncation mutations may be sensitive to SRC kinase-inhibitors such as dasatinib whereas CSF3R membrane proximal mutations may be sensitive to JAK kinase-inhibitors such as ruxolitinib [9],[10]. Ruxolitinib was reportedly effective in a mouse model of CNL and a patient with CNL and a CSF3RT618I mutation [2],[11]. However, ruxolitinib was ineffective in a patient with CSF3RT618I and SETBP1 mutations in whom fedratinib suppressed CFU-GM colony formation [12].

Authors’ contributions

XZJ designed the study and drafted the article. CYJ collected the data, analyzed the molecular aberrations, and drafted the article. RPG drafted the typescript. LB, JQ, XZF, QTJ, ZPH, and ZY reviewed the clinical and pathology data. All authors read and approved the final typescript.

Declarations

Acknowledgements

Supported in part by National Natural Science Funds (No.81370611, No. 81270585), Tianjin Key Natural Science Funds (12JCZDJC23900), National Public Health Grand Research Foundation (No.201202017) (to ZX). RPG acknowledges support from the NIHR Biomedical Research Centre funding scheme.

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
MDS and MPN Centre, Institute of Hematology and Blood Diseases Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College
(2)
Hematology Research Centre, Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, Imperial College
(3)
Peking University People's Hospital, Peking University Institute of Hematology
(4)
Department of Pathology, Institute of Hematology and Blood Diseases Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College
(5)
State Key Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, Institute of Hematology and Blood Diseases Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College

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Copyright

© Cui et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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